Jeep Grand Cherokee

1993-1999 of release

Repair and car operation



Jeep Grand Cherokee
+ Cars of mark Jeep Grand Cherokee
+ Options and routine maintenance
+ Рядный the six-cylinder engine
+ Engine V8
+ Procedure of the general and engine major repairs
+ Systems of cooling, heating and air conditioning
+ The power supply system and release of the fulfilled gases
+ System of an electric equipment of the engine
+ Systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases and engine management
+ Manual box of a gear change
+ Automatic transmission
+ Distributing box
+ Coupling and трансмиссионная a line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ System of an onboard electric equipment
- Controls and operation receptions
   Acquaintance to the car
   Start of the engine and driving
   The panel of devices and the salon equipment
   Trailer towage
   Emergency towage of the car
   Towage of the car for the purpose of engine start




Start of the engine and driving

Positions of the cylinder of the lock of ignition

At all do not turn the ignition key in position LOCK and take it from the lock to a full stop of the car. Blocking of a steering column can lead to emergency creation! In case of need deenergizings of ignition during movement turn a key in position OFF.

Do not nestle during engine start on a steering wheel - if forward wheels of the car of a wheel have been left turned, the wheel can sharply move and injure hands or a thorax!

The cylinder of the lock of ignition by means of a key can is turned in one of five positions (see an illustration).

Key turn in position LOCK blocks the switch of ignition and a steering column. On models with АТ besides there is a blocking of the lever of the selector of transfers in River position

In position OFF there is an unblocking of a steering column and management АТ. The engine thus remains not started.

The key should occupy position ON/RUN at the working engine.

For start of the engine by a starter the key should be turned in position START. As soon as start successfully to come to the end a key should be immediately released in position ON.

Key turn in position АСС provides food giving on electric power consumers at the muffled engine.

Opening of a driver's door at the ignition key left in the lock leads to the inclusion of an alarm buzzer reminding to the driver about necessity to take out a key.

Blocking of a steering column can prevent поворачиванию a steering wheel and a key in the lock. For key clearing sharply pull a steering wheel in the same party where forward wheels of the car are turned, simultaneously turning a key towards position OFF.

Engine start

The general information

Normal start of the engine (cold or heated-up) should be made without squeezing of a pedal of gas. Turn the ignition key in position START after the engine will be started release. If within 10 seconds of start does not occur, turn a key in position OFF, wait about 5 seconds and repeat attempt.

If attempts to make start by usual way do not crown success, has probably occurred заливание the carburettor. Squeeze out to a floor a pedal of gas and, keeping it in this position, turn the engine a starter - thus there should be a removal of surplus of fuel.

In order to avoid failure of a starter do not turn it the engine continuously more than 15 seconds on end. Pauses between attempts should make not less than 10 ÷ 15 seconds.

The filled in engine can successfully be started, however will not develop a total power, sufficient for continuation of its work at release a key. In that case continue attempts at completely squeezed out pedal of gas. After turns of the started engine are stabilised release a pedal of an accelerator and the ignition key.

If the engine is not started after 15-second проворачивания by a starter at the squeezed out pedal of gas, repeat attempt of normal start (the item "Normal start of the engine see...").

Idling turns on the models equipped with system of multiitem injection of fuel are supervised automatically and will gradually decrease in process of engine warming up.

Avoid long single work of the engine, especially on the raised turns - the excessive warming up of the fulfilled gases can lead to damage каталитического the converter and other components of system of release. Do not leave the car with working engine without supervision.

Electric heater of the block (additional complete set)

Do not forget to switch off before a start of motion a cord of a heater from the socket, to wind and reliably to fix on a regular place in an impellent compartment!

The cooling liquid of the engine for the purpose of simplification of start of the last in cold weather allows to warm up a heater beforehand. The heater plug joins in standard 3-contact (with grounding) the socket of a variable network with pressure 110 ÷ 115 Century

The cord of a heater winded in a bay on 6-cylinder engines is usually fixed on a tube of ventilation of a crater. On engines V8 the cord bay is fixed in clips on a casing of the fan near to the tank of system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel.

Start of motion and driving

Management of a manual box of a gear change

Do not forget before leaving parked (especially on an inclined site of road) the car to cock a lay brake. Always leave РКПП on transfer (that does not mean absence of necessity for raising of a lay brake).


Do not move at all under a bias on neutral transfer and the more so do not switch off thus ignition as thus it is easy to run away and create an emergency on road!

РКПП it is equipped by the gauge-switch of interruption of a chain of the starter, not allowing to make engine start at the pedal of coupling not squeezed out against the stop.

Before to include transfer completely squeeze out a coupling pedal. Include the first transfer and slowly release couplings, simultaneously squeezing out gas.

Gear change make strictly in ascending order, without jumping through one. Begin movement always with the first transfer. The scheme of position of transfers is usually put on the handle of control lever РКПП. Casual inclusion instead of the first transfer of thirds at the moment of a start of motion can lead to coupling damage.

In the conditions of enough intense city cycle necessity for use of the higher transfers arises extremely seldom. The fifth transfer is intended for movement on a highway with high speed and does not allow to develop high acceleration. For inclusion of the fifth transfer submit the lever to the right against the stop, overcoming resistance of a spring, then push it forward. For return from the fifth transfer on the fourth pull the lever one movement on itself. There is no necessity sharply to move the lever to the left as thus by mistake it is possible to include instead of the fourth the second transfer that is fraught with box damage.

In order to avoid premature exit РКПП out of operation at driving it is necessary to observe some special rules:

  • Before to be switched from forward transfer on back (or on the contrary) wait a full stop of the car. Premature inclusion of transfer is capable to lead to serious mechanical damages of a transmission.
  • Avoid movement with high speed on the bottom transfers. Such manner of driving can lead to fast deterioration of a transmission and engine damages.
  • Try to switch transfers smoothly, without supposing a gnash. In order to avoid damage of the engine or transmission do not pass to lower transfer until speed of the car will not be dumped to comprehensible value.
  • Try to clean completely a foot from a pedal of coupling during movement or at engine work on single turns. Such manner of driving is fraught with a premature exit of coupling out of operation as a result of an overheat.
  • Do not forget that movement with excessively low speed for the chosen transfer is fraught with an engine overheat.
  • At all do not use coupling for car keeping motionlessly on an inclined site of road - coupling will quickly be past repair.
  • In order to avoid transmission damage at a gear change completely squeeze out a coupling pedal.
  • In order to avoid damages трансмиссионной a line try not to suppose too fast проворачивания wheels (more than 24 km/h (15 miles/ch) at attempts to shift from a place забуксовавший the car by switching from forward transfer on back and back.

In instrument brushes of models with РКПП the special control lamp warning the driver at dispersal of the car about necessity of switching on transfer following one after another is built in.

Management of automatic transmission

At lever AT not translated in position Р the parked car is not insured from скатывания under a bias. Before to leave the car check reliability of fixing of the lever in position Р for what pull the lever forward-back without squeezing out the button on its handle. Do not forget to cock a lay brake also!

The index on the display panel of the selector of transfers informs the driver on chosen position АТ. In a night-time the indicator is highlighted.
The lever of the selector of a gear change with the display panel.

To begin movement the lever of the selector of transfers it is necessary to translate from position N in one of working positions (1, 2, D, OD or R, depending on a task in view). Press the button sideways on the handle and switch the lever in demanded position. Do not force engine turns at conclusion АТ from positions Р or N.

Position Р is intended for a car parking. Its inclusion is made for the purpose of blocking of the transmission supplementing action of a lay brake оп to keeping of the car motionlessly. Position Р is one of two in whom engine start (the second - N) is possible. Going to leave the car, do not forget to cock also a lay brake, and do it before to translate in position Р АТ as differently it блокиратор it can appear under loading (if the car is parked on an inclined site of road) and lever switching it will appear impossible.

By transfer of the lever of the selector in position R АТ it is switched to a reverse gear (backspacing). Reverse gear inclusion should be made only after a full stop of the car.

Position N is intended for long parking of the car with working engine. The stopped engine also can be started in this position of the lever of the selector. If necessary to leave the car with the transmission established in position N do not forget to cock a lay brake.

Position OD designated on the indicator by letter D placed in a round framework, is intended for movement in a city cycle and on a motorway. Inclusion of the fourth (raising) transfer in АТ is supervised by the electronic device. Machine translation of transmission from mode D in mode OD occurs under following conditions:

  • The selector lever is established in position OD.
  • The cooling liquid of the engine reaches normal working temperature (only models V8).
  • Temperature ATF reaches normal working temperature (only 6-cylinder engines).
  • Speed of movement of the car exceeds value close to 48 km/h (30 miles/ch).
  • Not заактивирован switch O/D OFF.

Blocking of mode OD can be made by means of located on the panel of devices of switch O/D OFF. Switch activation is accompanied by inclusion of the control lamp located directly over it. When the lamp burns, raising transfer is blocked. Repeated squeezing of the button of the switch Blocking of raising transfer restores function OD should be made during towage of hard loaded trailer.
Site of the switch of blocking of raising transfer «О/D OFF».

During slow movement in the conditions of an intense city cycle or on dangerous mountain road it is reasonable to raise efficiency of return of the engine by switching АТ in position 2. Thus the set of forward transfers of transmission is limited to first two. Use the given mode also during long liftings and for braking of the car by the engine on descents. Watch that speed of movement of the car in a mode 2 АТ did not exceed value of 72 km/h (45 miles/ch).

Position 1 it is intended for selection from the engine of the maximum capacity during steep slopes or for braking by the engine on small speeds of movement (less than 40 km/h (25 miles/ch)). In order to avoid excess of admissible turns of the engine do not disperse the car over the specified value of speed.

In order to avoid premature exit АТ out of operation at driving it is necessary to observe some special rules:

  • Before to deduce the lever of the selector of transfers from position Р unblock it (and a steering column), having turned the ignition key in position ON.
  • Do not force the engine at the involved brakes and the transmission included on transfer. Car keeping motionless on an inclined site of road make only by means of brakes. The neglect performance of the given conditions can lead to a premature exit of transmission out of operation as a result of an overheat.
  • In order to avoid damages трансмиссионной a line try not to suppose too fast проворачивания wheels (more than 24 km/h (15 miles/ch) at attempts to shift from a place забуксовавший the car by switching from forward transfer on back and back.

The electronic system constantly traces temperature ATF. If the transmission temperature rises too highly, there is its automatic switching on the third transfer, accompanied by inclusion of control lamp О/D OFF After ATF transmission will cool down comes back in a normal mode of functioning.

Design АТ provides additional possibility of economy of the expense of fuel. Gearing of coupling occurs to the rotation converter automatically on reaching the car of certain speed limit. Thus there can be a little unusual sensations at normal functioning three on the higher transfer. At falling of speed of the car, or during an acceleration coupling automatically also is smoothly disconnected.

Use operative the information on a condition of system of cooling

The careless executor can be easily strongly scalded steam pulled out from a radiator. If from under a cowl steam is pulled out, or suspicious hissing is audible, do not open a cowl before full cooling of system of cooling!

In the conditions of intense operation of the engine the cooling system can test overloads. Such situation is most typical during long lifting uphill in hot weather, at a stop after a long trip, during long work of the engine on single turns at hit in a road stopper, and also at trailer towage.

When the arrow of a measuring instrument of temperature of a cooling liquid on an instrument guard comes into a red zone, or the control lamp of temperature joins, for example at car hit in a stopper, translate transmission in neutral position and switch off К/В if it has been included.

When the arrow of a measuring instrument of temperature is in the top half of scale of the indicator before to suppress the engine always let's to it work within not less minute on single turns.

If within a minute-two of the marksman of a measuring instrument the control lamp does not fall / does not die away, choose a safe place and park on it the car. Translate the selector lever in position Р (АТ) / choose neutral transfer (РКПП) and cock a lay brake. Do not suppress the engine and slightly lift its turns. After two-three minutes again dump turns to the single.

If the temperature on the former has not fallen, muffle the engine. Lift a cowl check up on presence of leaks a radiator and all its hoses, including переливной. Check up a condition drivers belts. If level of a cooling liquid has fallen or has failed вентиляторный a belt, do not start the engine until the overheat reason will be eliminated. The temporary overheat of a cooling liquid at a stop after a long trip with high speed of movement should not cause anxiety - after nearby 10 minutes the temperature should return to norm.

Principle of functioning of an electronic control system in the speed (темпостата)

Оставление темпостат included when need for it disappears dangerously! Unexpected operation of system after casual pressing of the button of a choice of cruiser speed can lead to loss of management and hit in an emergency! Without fail disconnect темпостат at transition to a hand control in the speed.

At activation темпостата he incurs function of management by an acceleration, supporting a constant the chosen cruiser speed of movement of the car. Use темпостата becomes possible only at speeds of movement over 60 km/h (35 miles/ch). Management buttons темпостатом are located on a steering wheel and provide operation of switches ON/OFF (Vkl/Vykl), RESUME/ACCEL (Return to the chosen high-speed mode/acceleration) and SET/DECEL (Installation/deseleratsija).
Management buttons темпостатом.

System activation is made by unitary нажимания on switch ON/OFF button. Repeated squeezing of the button disconnects темпостат.

When need for system is absent, it should be disconnected.

Having dispersed till demanded speed (over 60 km/h), unitary press button SET/DECEL. Now the gas pedal can be released - темпостат will automatically support the chosen cruiser speed.

Easy squeezing of a pedal of gas, and also use of brakes or coupling lead to switching-off темпостат without clearing of its memory. That memory of system has appeared is cleared it is necessary to disconnect темпостат button ON/OFF.

For return to chosen and brought in memory темпостата cruiser speed on termination of the compelled acceleration or braking unitary press button RESUME/ACCEL. Return can be made at any speed of movement of the car over 50 km/h (30 miles/ch).

By means of the same switch cruiser speed can be increased. At included темпостате press button RESUME/ACCEL and keep its pressed until new demanded value of speed will be reached. At release buttons new cruiser speed will be the system written down in memory. Short нажимание buttons leads to a gain of speed on 3.2 km/h (2 miles/ch). So that to receive a gain in 9.6 km/h (6 miles/ch) it is necessary to squeeze out the button three times shortly.

Decrease brought in memory темпостата cruiser value of speed is made by means of button SET/DECEL. Keep the button pressed, desirable new value will not be reached yet.

To make overtaking on operated темпостатом the car simply squeeze out a gas pedal as do it in a usual situation. At release pedals on termination of overtaking the car will return to chosen before cruiser speed.

During lifting uphill in height more than 650 m, and also at transportation of heavy cargoes (in particular by trailer towage) supported темпостатом cruiser speed of movement of the car can fall slightly below the established value. At lowering of actual speed below a mark of 50 km/h (30 miles/ch) the system is automatically disconnected. In this case it is necessary to take advantage of a pedal of gas for restoration of a demanded high-speed mode.

In the model described above a situation, equipped 5-step РКПП should cope on 4th transfer. 4-step АТ can carry out to several switchings with 4th on 3rd transfer. And improvement of efficiency of return of the engine it is recommended to make blocking of a mode of raising transfer for decrease in frequency of switchings, having pressed button O/D OFF.

At movement uphill or under a bias the car can lose or speed up accordingly without dependence from that is included темпостат or not. If the slope steepness allows the car to increase spontaneously speed, take advantage of a pedal of a foot brake. Thus there will be an automatic switching-off of a control system by speed and movement delay. On equipped РКПП models when the chosen transfer is not capable to support more actually taking place high-speed mode during lifting uphill, be switched to lower following one after another.

In order to avoid loss of the control over management of the car do not use темпостат in the situations listed more low:

  • When there is no physical possibility of movement with the constant chosen speed.
  • At movement on slippery road.
  • In the conditions of brisk traffic, and also on "streamer" of mountain roads.

Principle of functioning of a distributing box of all-wheel drive models

At all do not leave a distributing box of the parked car in neutral position, preliminary without having cocked a lay brake! Thus both bridges of the car appear are disconnected from трансмиссионной lines and the car is not insured from spontaneous скатывания under a bias even at the transmission established on transfer.

Distributing box of system QUADRA-TRAC (additional complete set)

The system of switching of modes of a distributing box of models 4WD without possibility of switching-off of full drive QUADRA-TRAC provides three modes of its functioning - two workers and neutral.
The lever of a choice of modes of distributing box QUADRA-TRAC.

The mode of raising transfer 4WD (4HI) is intended for usual use of the car in any road conditions.

Inclusion of a mode of lowering transfer 4WD (4LO) allows to raise traction force developed by the engine at speed of movement not above 64 km/h (40 miles/ch). For mode inclusion dump speed to value 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/ch), switch transmission in neutral position, then smoothly and quickly translate the lever of a choice of modes of a distributing box in position 4LO without a delay on a neutral. At return of the lever to a mode 4HI also do not detain him in neutral position.

At all do not make inclusion of a mode of lowering transfer of a distributing box and an exit from it at speed of movement of the car from above 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/ch)!

In neutral position the system disconnects leading bridges of the car from трансмиссионной lines. In this position car towage (see Has undressed the Panel of devices and the salon equipment) should be made.

The graphic display of information centre of the car (see Has undressed the Panel of devices and the salon equipment) fixes the chosen mode of a distributing box. At a choice of mode HI on the display all four wheels of a planimetric plotting of the car are highlighted. Mode LO is designated by подcandlesивания four wheels, in a combination to inscription LO on the screen. The lamp can shortly blink at the moment of transfer of the lever from 4HI in 4LO, however when inclusion of a mode of lowering transfer is finished, it should burn continuously.

Incomplete switching of the lever of a choice of modes conducts to loss of capacity developed by the engine and possible damage of a distributing box. The probability of loss of the control over driving is not excluded also. It is not necessary to begin movement without having made sure of unambiguity of inclusion of a distributing box!

Distributing box of system SELEC-TRAC (additional complete set)

Do not include distributing box SELEC-TRAC for a long time on an all-wheel drive mode at movement on a dry firm covering. For simplification of inclusion of all-wheel drive modes preliminary hand over the car on some metres back, or curtail on a roadside with the loose covering providing possibility of proslipping of wheels.

The system of switching of modes of a distributing box of models 4WD with possibility of switching-off of full drive SELEC-TRAC provides five modes of its functioning: 2WD, 4х4 PART-TIME, 4х4 FULL-TIME, 4LO and a neutral (N).
The lever of a choice of modes of distributing box SELEC-TRAC.

The choice made the driver is reflected in the graphic display of information centre (see Has undressed the Panel of devices and the salon equipment). At mode inclusion 2WD on a car planimetric plotting two back wheels are highlighted only. In case of a choice of all-wheel drive modes all four wheels, plus inscription PART-TIME (changeably included full drive) or FULL-TIME (constantly included full drive) in case of raising modes 4WD, or LO are illuminated at a choice of a lowering mode 4LO. Neutral position of a distributing box is not reflected in any way in the display.

The delay of inclusion of all-wheel drive modes can speak non-uniformity of deterioration of protectors, low pressure of a rating of tyres, and also cold weather.


Incomplete switching of the lever of a choice of modes conducts to loss of capacity developed by the engine and possible damage of a distributing box. The probability of loss of the control over driving is not excluded also. It is not necessary to begin movement without having made sure of unambiguity of inclusion of a distributing box!

The mode of raising transfer 2WD is intended for movement on roads with a firm covering and provides peak efficiency of the expense of fuel.

Lever transfer in position 4 х 4 PART-TIME provides inclusion of a full drive in a changeable mode when occurrence on road of snow drifts or glaze ices demands increase of reliability of coupling with road. The mode is raising and does not provide an increment of traction effort. At a choice of the given mode forward and back bridges are mechanically blocked with each other and rotate with identical speed. It is not necessary to use a mode 4 х 4 PART-TIME at movement on a dry road covering. Mode inclusion can be made on the move at any resolved speed of movement of the car - simply translate a control lever a box from position 2WD in position 4x4 PART-TIME.

Inclusion a mode 4х4 FULL-TIME allows to raise course stability of the car at the expense of the best coupling with road at movement on a wet, slippery or snow-covered road covering. The mode also concerns the raising. At its inclusion, unlike described above 4х4 PART-TIME, forward and back bridges rotate independently from each other that allows to increase manoeuvrability of the car considerably. Use of the given mode is not forbidden in any road conditions. Transfer of a distributing box from position 2WD in position 4х4 FULL-TIME it can be carried out at any legal speed of movement of the car. While translating a control lever of a box from position 2WD in position 4х4 FULL-TIME through 4х4 PART-TIME it can be necessary twice to release a gas pedal.

The mode of a full drive with fall of the transfer relation 4LO joins in need of a time increment of traction effort of the car at movement on impassability with small speed.

It is not necessary to include a mode 4LO on roads with a good covering! To include a mode 4LO speed of the car should be dumped to value 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/ch), and transmission is translated in neutral position.


Do not try to make at all mode inclusion 4LO at speed of movement of the car from above 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/ch)! It can lead to an exit of a distributing box out of operation.

Neutral position (N) a distributing box is intended for emergency towage of the car (the item "In neutral position see...").

Distributing box of system COMMAND-TRAC (additional complete set)

The increase in a noise background of a distributing box at its inclusion in modes of a full drive should not cause anxiety.

The distributing box of system COMMAND-TRAC provides possibility of changeable use of a full drive. Thus forward and back bridges are mechanically blocked with each other and rotate with identical speed. The system provides possibility of inclusion of four operating conditions of a box: 2WD, 4х4 PART-TIME, 4LO and a neutral (N).
The lever of a choice of modes of a distributing box.

On the graphic display of information centre of the car (see Has undressed the Panel of devices and the salon equipment) the chosen mode is displayed by illumination of wheels on a car planimetric plotting in a combination to an explanatory inscription of the corresponding maintenance.

The mode of raising transfer 2WD is intended for movement on roads with a firm covering and provides peak efficiency of the expense of fuel.

Lever transfer in position 4х4 PART-TIME provides inclusion of a full drive in a changeable mode when occurrence on road of snow drifts or glaze ices demands increase of reliability of coupling with road. The mode is raising and does not provide an increment of traction effort. It is not necessary to use a mode 4х4 PART-TIME at movement on a dry road covering. Mode inclusion can be made on the move at any resolved speed of movement of the car - simply translate a control lever a box from position 2WD in position 4х4 PART-TIME.

The mode of a full drive with fall of the transfer relation 4LO joins in need of a time increment of traction effort of the car at movement on impassability with small speed.

It is not necessary to include a mode 4LO on roads with a good covering! To include a mode 4LO speed of the car should be dumped to value 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/ch), and transmission is translated in neutral position.


Do not try to make at all mode inclusion 4LO at speed of movement of the car from above 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/ch)! It can lead to an exit of a distributing box out of operation.

The back bridge with system of automatic redistribution of loading in differential TRAC-LOCK (an additional complete set)

The system provides automatic change-over of differential of the back bridge when coupling of one of back wheels with road is lost also it starts to revolve. As soon as such situation arises, the differential automatically redistributes loading, providing the maximum twisting moment to that wheel which has the best coupling with road.

System TRAC-LOCK is capable to bring special advantage at movement on a slippery road covering. If on ice there are both back wheels, for maintenance of the maximum coupling with road will squeeze out slightly a gas pedal enough. When on a slippery surface there is only one of the back wheels, useful there will be an insignificant raising for very short time of a lay brake.

Principle of functioning of system of antiblocking of brakes

«Качание» a brake pedal during braking on the car equipped ABS appreciably reduces efficiency of functioning of last and only increases a brake way! Simply squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake and keep its pressed to a full stop of the car.


Functioning ABS can lead to occurrence of hindrances of reproduction of incorrectly connected radio equipment and mobile phones.

ABS substantially raises safety of management of the car at braking on a slippery and unreliable road covering, and also at any sharp braking. The system is equipped by the separate processor module of management operating hydraulic pressure in a brake contour for the purpose of prevention of premature blocking of any of wheels. The probability of loss of driving owing to drift during sharp braking thus comes to naught.

For a guarantee of serviceability of functioning of the module of management and adequacy of its commands to real conditions all wheels of the car and their tyre should be one standard size and are pumped up properly.

For the speed about 13 km/h (8 miles/ch) ABS makes низкоскоростное self-testing. During carrying out of the given testing the pedal of a foot brake can pulse slightly that should not cause any anxiety.

Electric pump ABS joins in time of performance by system низкоскоростного self-testings and also when ABS stops to carry out adjustment of hydraulic pressure. In an operating time the pump publishes easy hum which also it is not necessary to be frightened.

At sharp braking there can be pulsations of a pedal of a foot brake and be distributed a clicking. It is not necessary to pay attention to these symptoms - they are a sign of serviceable functioning ABS.

Loss of coupling with a road covering at movement on a cross-country terrain can lead a time suspension of functioning ABS and to inclusion of a control lamp on the panel of devices. Again to instal system switch off and again include ignition.

Some councils about rules of driving of the all-wheel drive car

The general data

For peak efficiency of using brakes and an accelerator it is necessary to remember some moments:

  • Do not hold a foot on a brake pedal during movement is can result to an overheat of brake mechanisms and, as consequence to increase in a brake way and refusal of brake system.
  • Avoid long use of brakes for restraint of the car during descent under a bias is can lead to failure of brake mechanisms. Will switch more correctly transmission to lower transfer, and on models with АТ to resort to blocking of a mode of raising transfer (button O/D OFF - see above).
  • During an engine warming up its single turns are usually a little overestimated, therefore at casual handling of a pedal of gas during a start of motion car driving wheels can start to be turned. Special attentiveness should be shown at movement on slippery roads, during fulfilment of maneuvers, and also at a car parking. Do not forget to include an all-wheel drive mode at deterioration of coupling of wheels with road.
  • Try to observe always safe for concrete road conditions speed of movement. Do not forget about formation possibility between wheels of the car and a road covering of a water pillow at crossing of pools at great speed. It is more safe to move to rainy weather with the included full drive.
  • After crossing of water barriers or departure from a car wash it is necessary to dry brake mechanisms by fulfilment of several braking on small speed.

Movement on a line

Models of type Utility differ from other passenger cars the considerable road gleam allowing them free to overcome many meeting on a cross-country terrain of a barrier. High landing provides also the best review to the driver. It is not necessary to forget however that at such design the vehicle centre of gravity is located considerably above than usual models. Such cars are not intended for passage of turns on high speeds. Try to avoid whenever possible sharp maneuvers and in advance reduce speed at approach of turns. Infringement of the given requirements can lead to loss of management and переворачиванию the car.

Movement on a cross-country terrain

The general information

Only all-wheel drive models are intended for movement on impassability. Movement on a cross-country terrain in a mode 2WD is admissible only in case of sufficient durability and flatness of soil. It is better to go to a distant trip two or more cars.


At movement on a cross-country terrain not to put harm to environment! Before leaving camp parking clean behind itself all dust.

Movement on impassability demands from the driver of some special skills, therefore try to concern with all responsibility studying stated below a material.

Preparation for congress from a line

The driver should be assured of a technical condition of the car. All knots and systems should work regularly, and the car bottom is protected in the reliable image (with installation of all provided filters). Check up, whether the spare wheel, whether in norm levels of all working liquids is pumped up properly. Make sure that were not going to drive to someone's private possession without the special permission to that.

Order of loading of the car

The luggage laid above a back of a back seat, during sharp braking can break from the place and injure the driver or passengers of the car! For the same reason it is necessary to take care of reliable fastening of cargo. In avoidance переворачивания the car at movement on a cross-country terrain try to lower the centre of its weight as it is possible more low - put heavy subjects on a luggage space floor, and at all on the top luggage carrier. Try to shift cargo in a luggage space as it is possible further forward!

The heaviest subjects should be laid on a luggage space floor in its forward part. Try to shift cargo as it is possible further forward.

Take care of reliability of fixing of luggage.

Driving

At movement on impassability jolting and jerks are capable to throw out the driver from the place that is fraught with management loss! In order to avoid it the driver and passengers should be reliably fastened seat belts.

Remember that absence on a cross-country terrain of other vehicles at all does not allow the driver to get into the car in a state of intoxication. Even the slightest loss of coordination at movement on impassability can lead to fatal result!

Before to go to a distant trip on a cross-country terrain it will be quite good to practise a little as driving on impassability demands some special skills.

Prepare for perception and the analysis of an extensive spectrum of the entering information. Eyes should look through constantly territory ahead of the car in search of barriers and ways of their detour. Ears should listen to the unusual sounds published by the engine, components of a suspension bracket and other knots and car systems. Hands, feet and a body should constantly демпфировать pushes and vibration.

The basic pledge of successful end of a trip on impassability is correctness of a choice of safe speed of movement. The speed of movement less, the better the driver has time to consider obstacles and to choose roundabout ways. Jolting simultaneously decreases and remains большее time for decision-making and performance of necessary maneuvers.

At movement on a cross-country terrain the car can get to a deep dirt, a grass, sand, snow, etc., to run into rubble and ice. The manner of driving and car braking in each of the listed cases should be corrected in appropriate way.

On a way the invisible obstacles hidden in a grass, a dirt or sand can come across any. Not to run away the car the driver it should be constantly ready to arrival on such obstacles. Try to consider any external changes of a lay of land and a nature of the soil. Strong hold a steering wheel.

At arrival on obstacles the car can come off wheels the earth. Even at a separation of one wheel it is easy enough to run away - try to supervise speed of movement and avoid sharp pushes.

Avoid sharp changes of speed and a movement direction.

Movement on district with a hilly relief

For safe movement on hilly district in cross-country conditions it is important to be able to estimate adequately a situation and to realise about vehicle possibilities. Some liftings cannot be overcome without dependence from a car design. If lifting is too abrupt, at its capture the engine will simply decay. At movement downwards on too abrupt descent it is easy to run away. Attempt move along a slope can to lead переворачиванию the car. It is better not to undertake attempts of overcoming of such obstacles without being absolutely assured of their successful end.

Approach to a height

At approach to a height it is necessary first of all to try to estimate a steepness of its slope adequately. Remember that more close to top the slope steepness can raise, what not always it is visible from below in view of vegetation presence.

First of all try to estimate uniformity of a steepness of a slope and durability of a surface of soil on it. Consider an arrangement of obstacles. Be are ready to that behind pass there can be a breakage - will make most correctly the pedestrian рекогносцировку.

Lifting

After the decision on necessity of overcoming of a height is accepted, be switched to lowering transfer and strongly undertake a wheel.

Begin lifting with smooth acceleration and try to hold speed of movement of a constant. In order to avoid proslipping of wheels try not to increase speed more than it is really necessary. Whenever possible try to move the most direct way to hill top - avoid changes of a direction of movement.

Movement along a slope dangerously, in view of the raised probability переворачивания the car!

As approaching top reduce speed of movement. For the notice of drivers of possible counter vehicles take advantage of a headlight of headlights or a sound signal. In the afternoon days it is expedient to fix a flag on the car.

Departure on pass with high speed is dangerous - on that party breakage can settle down or be other vehicle!

If in the course of lifting there is a situation when the engine глохнет or there are signs of that it just about will decay there is a certain list of that it is necessary to undertake and what it is not necessary to undertake. At first that should be made:

  • Stop the car, having squeezed out педель a foot brake. Cock a lay brake.
  • If the engine has not decayed yet, switch transmission to a reverse gear, release a lay brake and slowly move down from a slope a backing.
  • If the engine has decayed, it is necessary for starting again. On former without releasing a brake (foot and lay), switch transmission in position Р (АТ) or choose neutral transfer (РКПП) and start the engine. Now include a backspacing and go down from a hill a backing.
  • At movement downwards a backing put the left hand on a steering wheel in position at 12 o'clock that it was easier to supervise straightforwardness of operated wheels of the car. Turn of operated wheels aside increases chance переворачивания the car on a slope.

At all it is not necessary to undertake following actions:

  • Do not try to prevent останов the engine by switching АТ in position «N», or on models with РКПП - in the present state of affairs it will not work coupling squeezing, on the contrary, the car can roll down downwards, sharply speeding up that will lead to management loss. Instead make the actions described in instructions of the item "If in the course of lifting...".
  • Do not try to make a turn when the engine of your car is close to останову during lifting uphill. If the slope is abrupt enough that the engine has begun глохнуть its steepnesses will suffice and that the car has turned over. Will be more correct to go down downwards a backing as it is offered in the item "If in the course of lifting...".

If after останова the engine attempt of descent of the car from a hill a backing does not crown success, it is necessary to stop, cock a lay brake, to translate transmission in position Р (АТ) or on 1st transfer (РКПП) and to muffle the engine. Further it is necessary to wait for the help only. Leave the car and rise so that it could not drive into you at refusal of brakes.

At all do not leave transmission in neutral position at an exit from the car!

Remember that the models equipped with a distributing box of manual type at installation of its lever in neutral position are not insured from качения even if transmission is included on transfer (РКПП) / established in position Р (АТ). If be going to get out of the car, without fail cock a lay brake, establish transmission on transfer/translate to position Р and choose one of operating conditions of a distributing box.

Descent

Excessive use of brakes at movement downhill can lead to refusal of brake mechanisms owing to an overheat and, as consequence, to management loss! Avoid using without special necessity brakes, supervise speed the engine, having translated transmission on the lowest transfer.

At movement downwards from a hill on a cross-country terrain besides try to estimate a slope steepness, character of a covering and presence of obstacles.

Having made of the decision on descent possibility, try to move directly downwards, having included the lowest transfer. Thus there will be a car will be braked by the engine that partly will facilitate a problem of the driver. Move slowly, trying not to run away.

Avoid changes of speed and a movement direction, try not to develop the car across a slope. Remember that the bias can quite safe for movement on it be strict downwards and during too time sufficient for переворачивания the car moving across it.

Do not move at all downwards накатом, having switched АТ in position N, or with having squeezed out a coupling pedal (РКПП). Thus the basic loading is necessary on brake mechanisms which can easily fail as a result of an overheat.

If during descent occurs останов the engine that generally speaking it is improbable, stop the car, having squeezed out a pedal of a foot brake, then cock the lay. Switch transmission in position Р (АТ) / to neutral transfer (РКПП) and, without releasing a brake, start the engine. Now include the lowest transfer, release brakes and continue movement. If to start the engine it is not possible, it is necessary to resort to assistance.

Movement across a slope

In the course of movement on a cross-country terrain it is almost impossible to avoid movings across a slope.

Whenever possible try to avoid such movings in view of repeated decrease in stability of the car and increase in loading at the wheels located more low level.

At a loose surface of a slope the car can easily start to slide on it sideways, will not turn over yet, упершись in firmer obstacle (a stone, a root, etc.).

Remember that arrival by the top wheels on a firm obstacle or hit bottom in the latent hole can lead also переворачиванию the car.

If the car has started to slide off on a slope sideways, try to restore the control over movement, having turned operated wheels downwards on descent. However will not suppose most correctly such situations. Be not afraid to waste time on the pedestrian sortie for the purpose of a choice of an optimum route.

If the engine глохнет during movement across a slope, do not get out at all of it through the doors located at the bottom level. To examine a slope below a point of a site of your car, leave aside from a possible trajectory of its falling.

Movement on a dirt, sand, snow or ice

Movement on the frozen reservoirs is dangerous in view of a hit high probability in an ice-hole or on the ice weakened by a current!

At movement on a dirt, a loose covering, deep snow or ice coupling of wheels with road appreciably decreases. Possibility of fast dispersal and braking is thus lost and manoeuvrability of the car decreases.

Will move most correctly on such coverings on hill-climbing gears - than more deeply a dirt, especially low transfer should be chosen. Avoid stops during movement on really deep a dirt, snow or sand - трогание from a place can appear impossible owing to proslipping.

At movement on wheel drift sand deeply roll in it that has appreciable influence on controllability of the car. It will be reasonable to weaken slightly pressure of a rating of tyres is will facilitate a problem and will increase coupling of wheels with road.

Dense snow and ice in the maximum degree weaken coupling of wheels of the car with road. On such coverings it is the most easier to lose the control over car management. If the ice surface in addition is humidified, the car acceleration becomes almost impossible owing to the strongest proslipping of wheels and can lead to loss of management and car drift.

Crossing through water barriers

Fording through a current is dangerous in view of danger of loss of coupling of wheels with a bottom owing to washing away from under them a ground a current!

First of all it is necessary to estimate depth of a crossing. If the water level reaches naves, hides bridges and an exhaust pipe, it is better to refuse a crossing at once.

On deep water is better to move slowly that splashes and a running wave did not get on components of system of ignition. To останову the engine can result also immersing under water of a cut of an exhaust pipe then engine start becomes almost impossible. Do not forget also that humidifying of frictional surfaces of brake mechanisms leads to time refusal of the last.

Arrival on poured оп to a surface of road in the form of a pool water at great speed can lead to "emerging" of the car and management loss. Avoid such troubles.

Return from a cross-country terrain on a line

Clear the bottom of the car and components of its suspension bracket from stuck on them of a dirt and extraneous subjects. Dust presence on a surface of components of system of release of the fulfilled gases is fraught with its ignition.

After movement on a dirt and sand it is necessary to examine and carefully to clear frictional overlays of brake kolodok/boots.

Examine components of a body, a suspension bracket and system of release of the fulfilled gases on presence of signs of damages. Check up on presence of signs of leaks brake and fuel lines.

At frequent use of the car for movement on a cross-country terrain it is necessary to reduce some intervals between performance of procedures of routine maintenance (see the Head of Adjustment and routine maintenance).